May 4, 2011

240b. Terror Cimbricus II

tum in África
bellum gerébat.
Sine mora
ex África
in Itáliam vocátus est.
Cópias novas
non solum toti Itáliae
sed étiam provínciis sociórum
Disciplína autem dura
laboribúsque perpétuis
mílites exércuit.
cum pedítibus equitibúsque,
qui iam proélio studébant,
ad Germanórum castra
celériter properávit.
Diu et ácriter pugnátum est.
Dénique bárbari fugérunt
et multi
in fuga
ab equítibus sunt interfécti.
"pater pátriae" vocátus est.

TEXT SOURCE: Latin for Beginners, by Benjamin Leonard D'Ooge (1911), with a vocabulary list in the back.


  1. hi

    shouldn't it be patrem patriae?

    i understand pater to be accusative.

    1. It is nominative because it is agreeing with the subject: vocatus est is not a transitive verb. Instead, it takes a predicate that agrees with the subject:
      Marius Romanus est.
      Marius fortis vir est.
      Marius fortis vir videtur.
      Marius pater patriae vocatus est.
      And so on! :-)

    2. I appreciate your replying.

      I understand vocatus est to be an example of the passive perfect tense.

      Because it is passive therefore the sentence cannot have a direct object - ipso facto one cannot employ the accusative case.

      so would I be correct in assuming that this rule, which I've stated above, hold true for the others passive forms?


  2. Well, the deponent verbs as they are called can "look" passive, but take objects: eum secuta sum, I followed him. Sometimes people call them "passive in form, but active in meaning" ... I prefer to think of them like the Greek middle voice. But anyway, when in doubt, consult a good dictionary like Lewis & Short Latin-English Dictionary (online!) and you will get lots of helpful information.

    1. In Caesar's Gallic war, he begins it as follows:

      Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres.

      I have 2 problems with this:
      First, assuming that he is using the passive perfect tense, why does he shift the order? should it not be Divisa est? i understand that Latin is more relaxed in it rules regarding word order but i haven't been informed that this is permissible.

      secondly, why is it translates 'is divided', and not 'was divided'?
      because in my Latin textbook the passive perfect is translated 'was loved' or 'have been loved'?


  3. Latin word order is (almost) completely free, so any choice between est divisa and divisa est is purely stylistic, a choice on the part of the author, along with choices about whether words intervene to break up the verb phrase or not. As for English, it is just different from Latin: is divided, was divided, has been divided... we have a different range of choices and they do not map exactly onto the Latin in a formulaic way.

    1. For the most part Caesar employs structures that i can understand as I've been studying them but at times he really make the sentence awkward and confusing because he uses something that, i feel, 'spoils' the sentence.

      for example:

      Is M.Messala et M. Pisone consulibus regni cupiditate inductus coniurationem nobilitatis fecit et civitati persuasit, ut de finibus suis cum omnibus copiis exirent.

      I understand the sentence, in that i can highlight the syntactic role of most of the structures, but i can't make sense of the the 2 names. i understand both are ablative singular and somehow connect to 'consulibus', but i can't find the connection, perhaps if he had put the names in the genitive it would make sense.

      How does one make the connection between the two?

    2. Those names are in apposition to consulibus: they ARE the consuls, and they are all in the ablative.
      I'm not really a fan of reading Caesar at all... but I'd suggest you check out TextKit for example as a place to connect with others who are reading Caesar!

    3. I am already acquainted with TextKit, and I have checked there, but nothing really of use in terms of help reading Caesar.

      Who would you recommend I read?

      I'm probably belabouring you with all my questions, but I liked your early responses.

    4. I don't teach Latin anymore, but my students blog, so I am blog-aware, ha ha.
      Have you poked around Google Books to find some old student editions of Caesar? If you can find one written in a style that you like, they are so helpful! Just go to Google Books and set the search for "free ebooks" and you will find mountains of stuff.